Beijing Spacecrafts，Beijing 100094
Aiming at accurate measurements of residual stress caused by further improvement of service life and quality of large space station， factors of affecting measurement accuracy of residual stress and calibrating methods were studied. Based on theoretical analysis of temperature， surface roughness and transducer coupling state， measurement errors caused by main influencing factors were tested. Results show that temperature variation， surface roughness and transducer coupling state may cause large measurement deviation. In order to improve ultrasonic detection accuracy of residual stress and reduce measurement errors， modification methods such as compensating temperature， correcting surface roughness sample， optimizing coupling agent should be introduced. This study can provide a technical reference for application and development of spacecraft cabin structure ultrasonic residual stress measurement.