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低密度气凝胶复合材料的火星环境适应性研究
雷尧飞1,韩妙玲1,艾素芬1,沈宇新1,宫顼1
北京卫星制造厂有限公司,北京 100080
摘要:
针对航天器的使用要求,研制了密度≤30 kg/m3轻质高效的二氧化硅气凝胶复合材料。针对深空探测的应用环境,对低密度气凝胶复合材料在不同条件下的热导率、热循环、热真空和电离总剂量等环境试验进行测试。结果表明,低密度气凝胶复合材料服役温度可达到-145~85℃,在1 kPa CO2气氛下热导率可达到6.6 mW/(m·K)。获得了不同气氛和不同温度条件下以及同种气氛、不同压力条件下低密度气凝胶复合材料的热导率变化规律,并测试批次性材料热导率,结果表明批次热导率稳定性良好。热循环、热真空和电离辐照试验前后热导率和尺寸收缩率均未变化,表明低密度气凝胶复合材料在深空环境下保持良好的结构和稳定的隔热性能。
关键词:  低密度气凝胶复合材料  深空探测  航天器  环境适应性
DOI:10.12044/j.issn.1007-2330.2019.06.017
分类号:V19
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 51761145103国家自然科学基金(51761145103)
The Adaptability of Low-Density Aerogel Composites to Mars Environment
LEI Yaofei1,HAN Miaoling1,AI Sufen1,SHEN Yuxin1,GONG Xu1
Beijing Spacecrafts,Beijing 100080
Abstract:
For the use requirements of spacecraft, a lightweight and highly efficient aerogel composite material with a density of less than 30 kg/m3 was developed. In the light of the application environment of deep space exploration, the thermal conductivity under different conditions, thermal cycling, thermal vacuum, and total ionizing dose experiment were conducted. The result shows that the service temperature of low-density aerogel composite covers -145~85°C and the thermal conductivity under 1 kPa CO2 atmosphere can be as low as 6.6 mW/(m·K). The change law of thermal conductivity in different atmosphere and different temperature and different pressure in same atmosphere is studied. The thermal conductivity of aerogels from different batches is also tested, and the result shows that batch stability is good. The variation of the dimension and thermal conductivity after various thermal cycling and total ionizing dose experiment is zero,which indicates that low-density aerogel composite maintains good structure and stable thermal insulation in the deep space environment.
Key words:  Low-density aerogel composite  Deep space exploration  Aircraft  Environmental adaptability