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航天飞行器热防护涂层研究进展
王开石,匡松连
(航天材料及工艺研究所,先进功能复合材料重点实验室, 北京 100076)
摘要:
近年来,新研航天飞行器气动热环境往往具有高焓、高热流密度和长时间加热等特点,这促使防热材料的研制朝着低密度、高抗烧蚀、优良隔热等性能的方向发展。受自身材料类型的限制,无论烧蚀型(树脂基)或非烧蚀型(陶瓷基)防热材料都可以通过对烧蚀表面进行涂层处理的手段达到弥补材料性能短板,提高使用性能的目的。本文试图梳理、总结国内外近年来热防护系统用涂层材料的发展状况,探讨各自的优势和缺点,并提出了针对树脂基复合材料热防护涂层可能趋势的推测。
关键词:  航天飞行器,热防护系统,涂层,烧蚀
DOI:
分类号:TB3
基金项目:
Developments of Coating Materials in the Thermal Protection System of Spacecrafts
WANG Kaishi, KUANG Songlian
(Science and Technology of Advanced Functional Composites Laboratory,Aerospace Research Institute of Materials & Processing Technology,Beijing 100076)
Abstract:
The aerodynamic heating environment for spacecrafts currently under development typically possesses the following characteristics:high enthalpy, high heat flux and long heating time. This in turn has lead to the shift of active research work of heat shield materials, e.g., phenolic-resin based composites, towards enhancing properties such as higher ablation resistance, good heat insulation and even lower densities. To overcome the limitation of materials’ intrinsic properties and to improve their performances, both ablative(resin based) and non-ablative(ceramic based) types of heat shield materials can be further optimized by applying functional coating materials on top of the ablation surface. This review has focused on the recent research effort on the coating material for different thermal protection systems and categorized them into two major types:ablative and non-ablative. Having obtained a comprehensive understanding about their pros and cons, a possible solution is proposed at the end of this article for resin-based ablative composites:coatings consist of silicon-based preceramic polymers that can be cured around the same temperature as phenolic resin but ceramized in-situ during flight.
Key words:  Spacecraft,Thermal protection system,Coatings,Ablation